For gas priced at $2.50/gal, the annual fuel costs of $1,270 at 25 mpg would be reduced by $72.50 due to the weight reduction. The FY 2009 budget included $15 million for HEV systems, $38 million for PHEV systems, and $16 million for exploratory R&D. See, for example, . A subscale prototype has been developed for NaAlH4. New concepts, cost-reduction R&D, and alternative engineering approaches must remain the focus of the DOE funding, especially for the development of next-generation technologies. Device Cooling. Thus the battery is much bigger and operates over a larger variation of the SOC. There have also been significant increases in R&D activities globally in recent years on novel energy storage materials and systems with promising results. In the hybrid, the energy source is the HC fuel; the hybridization allows more optimal use of the engine and vehicle power-train system. These projections include the balance of plant. k Total hydrogen lost into the environment as H2; relates to hydrogen accumulation in enclosed spaces. Since the Phase 2 review, there has been improvement in discharge and regen-, TABLE 3-4 Target Characteristics for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Batteries for 2010. This system also powers and maintains the Electronic Stability Pragramme(ESP) which combines the suspension, braking and engine control. A noteworthy comment on significant achievements since the previous review is that, while almost every major target has been met in one form or another, they have unfortunately been in separate initiatives and not from a collective, single source. Areas have been identified for materials-based and physical/compressed storage-system cost reduction (TIAX LLC). More work will be required to assess the safety of battery chargers as a function of the cell sizes and battery pack configurations, as well as any changes in the battery chemistry that are ongoing in Li-ion battery development. Developments in this area, such as the soft magnetic material that Toyota uses in the boost converter in its power electronics, should be monitored (Nozawa et al., 2009). The vehicle propulsion system activities are focused on attaining specific hybrid vehicle traction drive performance targets (see Figure 3-5) over the next 10 years for cost, gravimetric and volumetric density, and efficiency through advancements in materials, system design, and component technology. a Generally the “full” mass (including hydrogen) is used, for systems that gain weight, the highest mass during discharge is used. The objective is to build a better permanent magnet motor that is designed to provide 30 kW continuous (55 kW peak) power with a top speed of 14,000 revolutions per minute (rpm), a constant power speed range of 5:1, and an efficiency greater than 95 percent at 20 percent torque (El-Rafaie and Johnson, 2009). The power thus produced is either directly utilized for various activities or is stored in a suitable battery pack for future use. See J. Quinn (GM) and J. Carpenter (DOE), “Materials Tech Team Peer Review Report,” Presentation to the committee, August 4, 2009, Southfield, Michigan. Recommendation 3-19. Learn about the working of different systems incorporated inside an automotive. All modern vehicles rely heavily on electrical systems: be it running the engine, stability or cruise control or for lighting or air conditioning. The PHEV allows for flexibility in the energy being used to power the wheels, whether it is electricity from batteries or fuel powering the ICE. Development of Power Control Unit for Compact-Class Vehicle, SAE 2009-01-1310, April. The BES budget within the Office of Science also included support of Basic Energy Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy ($38.3 million in FY 2009). l Total hydrogen lost from the storage system, including leaked or vented hydrogen; relates to loss of range. The complete documentation and communication of. Thus a suspension system is employed between the wheel(axle) and the chassis. provided by the DOE and $2.171 million provided by contractors) that runs from October 2007 through June 2011. Chassis is a French term and was initially used to electric motors. TABLE 3-1 Selected Fuel Cell Stack Targets and Progress, Projected system costs (500,000 units produced per year; $/kW). The Chassis electrical system is comprised of all wiring and components except for those used by the engine, its ancillaries, and any engine control circuits. Available on the Web at . The punching and assembly of laminations is expensive, and for years the “holy grail” of soft magnetic materials has been to discover a new material that has both high electrical resistivity and high permeability at the flux density levels needed. j The storage system will not provide any purification, but will receive incoming hydrogen at the purity levels required for the fuel cell. No allowable performance degradation from −20C to 40C. Weiss, M. A., J.B. Heywood, E.M. Drake, A. Schafer, and F.F. Their working principle is same, i.e. (1) efficiency, to maximize electric range; (2) volume, so that the system can be packaged without reducing space for passengers and cargo; and, of course, (3) cost. A lighter vehicle can perform equally well with smaller brakes, a less hefty suspension, and a smaller engine. The lower the catalyst loadings, the greater the potential impact on performance. All targets (weight, volume, efficiency, cost, packaging, safety, refueling ability, etc.) It impacts the fuel cell developers as well as the supply chain. DOE. In the opinion of the committee, this is the kind of stretch technology that is needed to reduce component size and material cost. The gearbox helps to multiply or divide the available torque at several fixed ratios. Know how the transmission system inside an automobile works. Power electronics also require capacitors and solders, and in some cases their temperature limits the operation of power electronics. A breakdown of how the FY 2009 funding was dispersed among different organizations and technologies is shown in Figure 3-1. Fuel consumption would then be expected to be reduced by at least 6 percent, resulting in a new fuel economy of at least 26.6 mpg. A car is a system with several subsystems, including the braking subsystem, the electrical subsystem, the engine, the fuel subsystem, the climate-control subsystem, and the passenger subsystem.