The set includes a sequence of round micro cubic … The claim that Christians plagiarized the cross off the Egyptian ankh seems to have a particularly strong niche following among anti-religious black nationalists (apparently those are a thing). Maybe so. Jehovah’s Witnesses and some other Christian religious groups hold that Jesus actually died on a crux simplex and that the cross is a pagan symbol. In the graffito, there is also a second, shorter crossbar near the bottom to support the donkey-man’s legs. Some people privately message me and urge me to tread with caution, lest the establishment quietly kills me. I am currently a student at Indiana University Bloomington pursuing a double major in classical studies and history. The usage of the Cross and the Crucifix came from the Roman Emperor, Constantine, who was a pagan and claimed to have converted to Christianity. A. Sutherland - AncientPages.com - Different people have different religions. If I am killed doing what I believe He is leading me to do, then that death will be the sweetest death possible and I have no fear in my heart if it has to come. … There’s nothing immoral, dishonest, or illegal about this. ABOVE: The crucifixion of Jesus and suicide of Judas Iscariot depicted on a Roman ivory panel dated to between c. 420 and c. 430 AD. If I, who has been so blessed by God, cannot risk my life against the establishment for Him, then I am of all men most useless! Thank you so much! Posted in solitarypaganism.com, Symbols Of Magick. : https://patreon.com/religionforbreakfast One-time donations here! I always love it when people give me positive feedback. They regarded it as a symbol of Christ’s promise of eternal life through his death and resurrection. I know of 7 year old Muslims who can read and recite the Quran in Arabic. Additionally, an ankh was often carried by Egyptiansas an amulet, either alone, or in connection with two other hieroglyphs that mean "strength" and "health" (see explication of Djed and Was, above). What are they each holding in their right hands? The ankh appears frequently in Egyptian tomb paintings and other art, often at the fingertips of a god or goddess in images that represent the deities of the afterlife conferring the gift of life on the dead person's mummy; this is thought to symbolize the act of conception. Just wanted to say thank you for all the interesting articles on this site. I will not say that Christians adopting the ankh isn’t cultural appropriation. I confronted him with the fact that the original Scripture did not use the word ‘Cross’, not even once and that it was European translators who inserted that word into Scripture. There is no story in Egyptian mythology about Horus walking on water. Many of those appointed into the committee that translated Scripture into KJV were Masons. Sokrates Scholastikos further reports that certain Christians interpreted the hieroglyphic writing on the temple to say that the cross—a symbol of “life to come”—would appear and that, upon its arrival, the temple would be destroyed. The ankh, already established as a symbol of eternal life, leant itself easily to assimilation into the early Christian faith and continued as that religion’s symbol.”. As a cross, it has been extensively used in the symbolism of the Coptic Orthodox Church. 41# CZ Gold-tone Ankh, Dog Tag Pendant Box Chain Necklace Set. There are, however, many different variants of the Christian cross and the Latin cross is only one of them. The comparison between the shape of a cross and the letter tau also occurs in non-Christian writings of the same time period. Premium plated with gorgeous rose gold metal color. It is time for us to purge Christianity of pagan practices and that is why I have travelled to Israel, Greece, Spain (Montserrat to see the Black ‪Madonna‬), Rome, The Vatican, Ethiopia, and Egypt, to gather first-hand knowledge about the true faith that Christ brought to Earth. Religion and the accusation of “stealing” or “plagiarism”. I was directed to Egypt, and off I went. While in Egypt, I engaged the services of a qualified guide, and we went investigating. Hey spencer,am a big fan all the way from nigeria just wanted to say thanks alot for all the interesting articles you put out,anyways i just wanted to ask how do you get all these information you get for your articles??? In this article we are going to discover its meaning, trying to resonate with its value and drawing a sense of peace and action. I would explain to your friend that the ankh was a symbol for life and cultures all over the world used it. The Ankh is the symbol of transformation or transmutation, while for Coptic Christians it is one of the iconographic representations of their faith. We must interrogate every aspect of our religion to make sure that it has complete fidelity to Scripture. Early Christians often used a slightly different version of the ankh. The gods are often depicted with it. The word Rosicrucian simply means “Order of the Rosy Cross”. The Ankh, a cross crowned by an oval, refers to the reconciliation of the opposites (feminine – masculine) and also to the symbol used to designate the planet Venus, a reason that makes it an element of numerous feminine cults.. ABOVE: Photograph of Gerald Massey taken by John & Charles Watkins Photographers at some point between 1865 and 1870, Where the symbol of the cross really comes from. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window). Some Egyptians who had converted to Christianity and who could read hieroglyphics declared that the ankh meant “life to come” and that it was a Christian symbol. Many Interpretations Of The Ankh It is not so hard. He not only taught himself Greek. I’ve already written a whole article debunking this claim in-depth, which I highly recommend reading. Hollywood Magazine Film Festival Humanitarian of the Year, 2019. There is no story in Egyptian mythology about Horus being crucified. It is an indisputable fact that Christ asked us to teach believers “to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you”-Matthew 28:20. When Egypt was Christianised in the fourth and fifth century AD, the symbol was close enough to otherdepictions of the cross. this article I originally published in September 2019, a whole article debunking this claim in-depth, View all posts by Spencer Alexander McDaniel. Another Greek word that is used in the New Testament to describe the cross Jesus died on is ξύλον (xýlon), which is a very generic term that can refer to any kind of structure made of wood. Gospeller. Modern Coptic crosses , however, are crosses with arms of equal length. And even Masons themselves regard the KJV as “The Great Light of Masonry”. I gave a respected and high profile Nigerian today’s column, before it was published, because he requested it. As I discuss in this article from March 2020, the earliest surviving depiction of Jesus is probably an anti-Christian graffito from a building on the Palatine Hill in the city of Rome dated to around the late second century or early third century AD that depicts a man worshipping a crucified man with the head of a donkey with the caption “Alexamenos worshipping his god.”. Between The Egyptian Ankh and The ‘Christian’ Cross. There is no myth in Egyptian mythology in which Horus is baptized, nor is there any figure in Egyptian mythology called “Anup the Baptizer.” Anup is the Coptic name for Anubis, the god of death, who is not associated with baptism in any way and was never said to have been beheaded. Djed Pillars, Hall of Osiris, Abydos. At that point, I had a guest come in, so I could not chat with him with the same rapidity. The ankh however took a new role while still retaining its promise of mortal life and the afterlife. But even that warning assumes that I am afraid of death. When I started out on this journey in 2018 by going to Israel to get to the bottom of the original Scripture, I had previously thought my purpose in life was to infuse Godliness into Nigerian and world politics (especially after my book became a number one bestseller). The article warns: “The original word used in the original Greek Scripture [for the object Jesus was killed on] is staurō, which may mean a pole, or a stake, or the word xylou, which means tree. Scripture like 1 Timothy 4:1 which reads as follows: “Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;”. The ANKH - EGYPTIAN CROSS is considered one of the most recognizable symbols throughout the ancient ages of Egypt. Notice the tiny crux ansata at the bottom of the page. That is why Christ and His disciples and the early Church did not use a Cross, whether with or without the image of Christ on it. Certainly not God. Furthermore, when cultural borrowing does happen, it is rarely ever as simple of someone looking at an idea in someone else’s culture and deciding to “steal” it wholesale and present it as their own without changing it. Many people are attracted to the Egyptian cross Ankh, which is said to represent the creation of life itself. Followers of Bible and the doctrine of Christ often lack knowledge of history outside of the religious text. Or, as in the case of Jews, see themselves as the rightful heirs to those traditions and persecute the actual heirs until they “see the light” and submit to Christ? Image. Enter your email address to subscribe to Tales of Times Forgotten and receive notifications of new posts by email. He claims that this interpretation led many Egyptians to convert to Christianity, because they believed that this meant that Christianity was the fulfillment of the ancient Egyptian priests’ predictions. The ankh is even on the seal of King Hezekiah. Read this and be spurred on to get to the bottom of your faith. As a vivifying talisman, the ankh is often held or offered by gods and pharaohs. Do not just read this and be entertained. He then tried to convince not to publish it and accused me of “pride” for refusing to accept his counsel and even said satan influenced me. The ankh could also be described as a cross with the top arm replaced by an upside-down teardrop shape. […] It is an undisputed fact that Christ did not die on a Cross. According to sources, the tear-shaped hoop above the cross represents the pathway of the sun. During Roman persecutions Egyptian Christians used the Ankh) since it was commonly used as a protection symbol by Egyptian Kemetists and Christians would not be picked out by this sign) as a symbol of the saving death of Christ as the key of eternal life in Heaven . In the satirical dialogue A Trial in the Court of Vowels, written by the Syrian satirist Loukianos of Samosata (lived c. 125 – after c. 180 AD), the letter sigma makes the accusation against the letter tau that its shape provided the inspiration for the crosses used by tyrants to crucify people. Where Does the Idea of a “Saint” Come From? How can we have a symbol in churches whose origin is clearly of Ancient Egyptian mystical origins and we are not asking questions? People would often wear the symbol on amulets for protection and it was used to decorate shrines, temples, and tombs. The Egyptian word for “life” was composed of this exact sequence of consonants. ABOVE: Illustration by Justus Lipsius of a crux simplex, an upright stake used for crucifixion. Other times people were crucified on X-shaped crosses. First published in my column, #TheAlternative, in Sunday ThisDay of December 1, 2019. the Greek cross (which is shaped like plus sign, with four arms of equal length), the Byzantine cross (which is shaped like a Latin cross, only the ends grow wider as they grow further apart from each other), the Cross of Lorraine (which has two crossbars of equal length, one at the top and the other at the bottom), the Jerusalem Cross (which is composed of a large, plus-sign-shaped cross and with four smaller, plus-sign-shaped crosses in each of its angles), the Papal Cross (which is a Latin cross with three bars of unequal length at the top, each bar longer than the bar above it), the Cross of Saint Peter (which is an upside-down Latin cross), the Cross of Saint Andrew (which is shaped like the letter X). I asked him how I could be proud when I was relying solely on Scripture. We must pay close attention to what Scripture says. I am Spencer Alexander McDaniel. How Historically Accurate Is Netflix’s ‘Barbarians’? Early Coptic (Egyptian) Christians used the ankh symbol as a staurogram – a representation of the Christian cross itself. This time, there is no smaller crossbar to support his feet. Certainly not God or His Son.”. The lotus flower was another important symbol in pagan Egypt, relating to creation and resurrection because of the way they appear to emerge from water in the … The Egyptian word for “life” was composed of this exact sequence of consonants. As Christianity gained more widespread acceptance in the 4th century CE many of the symbols of the old religion fell into disfavor and were banned or simply forgotten about. Debunking the Supposed Lincoln-Kennedy Connection. The cross Jesus is shown hanging on in the gemstone is shaped exactly like a Latin cross; it is a pole with a single crossbar near the top to support Jesus’s arms. “cross”] the vile engine is called, and it derives its vile name from him.”, There are also a number of surviving ancient depictions that indicate that most crosses in antiquity were shaped like the Latin cross. I have no doubt in my heart that the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the God and Father of my Lord and Saviour, Yeshua Hamashiach, is the ONLY TRUE God. Did Cleopatra Really Dissolve a Pearl in Vinegar? Irreligious proponents of the claim that Christians copied the cross off the Egyptian ankh often also claim that Christians “plagiarized” the whole story of Jesus off the Egyptian god Horus. The crux ansata also appears in an illustration on the final page of Codex Glazier, a Christian manuscript dated based on paleographic evidence to the fourth or fifth century AD that contains a Coptic translation of the New Testament. But is that really what they are doing? Your email address will not be published. At this point, he again accused me to beware of “pride”. For those who don’t have time, though, here’s a brief summary of the main points: The whole notion that Christians might have copied Jesus off Horus comes from the highly eccentric English spiritualist writer Gerald Massey (lived 1828 – 1907), who believed that all religions, including Christianity, were really corruptions of the true ancient Egyptian religion. The ankh's association with the afterlife made it an especially potent symbol for the Coptic Christians of Egypt in the 4th century CE who took it as their own. Appropriating the ankh as the crux ansata not only helped Egyptian Christians to win converts; it also helped integrate Christianity into Egyptian culture and allowed Egyptians to continue using a beloved sacred symbol even after they converted to Christianity. What these people don’t realize is that this word was often used in ancient times in a general sense to refer to any kind of wooden object used to crucify a person, regardless of the object’s actual shape. For instance, here is a confused rant of a blog post published on a WordPress site in July 2013 that concludes: “So you wearing the cross, you need to truly understand where it came from and what it actually means. So, understand that the idea of the cross was stolen from the ancient Black Africans of Kemet (egypt).”. Although used briefly in Christian symbolism, the ankh is far more commonly known for its Ancient Egyptian roots. Also, I would strongly consider researching the topic of cultural appropriation. One of the things that will shock many people is the fact that Christ did not die on a Cross. I absolutely will condemn them as “stealing” ideas. The Egyptian cross Ankh is an Egyptian symbol with a strongly codified meaning. It was their agenda to promote the Cross. If friends demands and God’s requirement clash, a true believer must choose God. The word used in Scripture is Tree. As Christianity gained more widespread acceptance in the 4th century CE many of the symbols of the old religion fell into disfavor and were banned or simply forgotten about. There is no story in Egyptian mythology in which Horus resurrects Osiris from the dead; Osiris is instead said to have been temporarily resuscitated by Horus’s mother Isis in order to conceive him. A sign above his head reads “REX IVD,” an abbreviation for “IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORUM,” which means “Jesus the Nazarene, King of the Jews” in Latin. God bless you as you do this. Retelling Obscure Stories from the Distant Past. The Christian historian Sokrates Scholastikos (lived c. 380 – after c. 439) records in his Ecclesiastical History Book Five, Chapter 17 that, after a group of Christians demolished the Serapeion in Alexandria in 391 AD, they discovered ankhs that had been carved on the stones of the temple. We cannot just go along to get along. It is an undeniable fact that the Ankh predated the Cross. In fact, the Ankh was one of the few Egyptian symbols that continued to be used after the Christianization of Egypt during the 4 th and 5 th century AD. Nothing is more important to me than chasing down the truth about God because Christ said in John 4:24 that “God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth.” If we are adopting pagan mystical practices, how can we be said to worship him in spirit and in truth.”? Avid traveller. About Us. Can Christians use the Ankh? [8] In 1984, a Coptic Cross was given as a gift by the Coptic Orthodox Church and mounted on the top of the All Africa Conference of Churches building, since the Coptic Church is considered to be the mother church in Africa. Although there is at least one story in Egyptian mythology in which Horus is injured and healed, there is no story in Egyptian mythology in which Horus genuinely dies and returns from the dead. Don’t take my word for it. There are numerous testimonies of what it means metaphorically and literally. The ankh is one of the most widely known symbols of the Egyptian world. To me, this is the only way I know how to worship God in spirit and in truth and I urge all my readers not to take my words at face value, but to be like the Berean Christians who “were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so.”-Acts ‪17:11‬. He went to Greece and stayed in a commune and read the original Scripture in its original language 34 good times! What do I want to achieve in life that God has not given me, often on a platter of gold? It's ridiculous. It’s a beautiful symbol which represents various different things, primarily “life” and “breath of life”. ABOVE: Carved gem dated to the early third century AD depicting Jesus hanging on a cross. The crux ansata also occurs in a number of surviving fragments of Egyptian cloth from late antiquity, which suggests that people wore it on their clothes as a protective symbol as well. The djed symbol, so closely associated with Osiris, was one of these but the ankh continued in use. This would be a good time to use your brain, not what you have been guided and brainwashed to believe as fact when it’s not. Nonetheless, there is a very interesting kernel of truth behind this claim that many of its proponents are not even aware of. The NIV uses the word ‘Pole’. The form of the symbol derives from a sandal strap. The Scriptures never said so. Far from being evidence that Christianity as a whole is a poorly-done knockoff of ancient Egyptian religion, however, the crux ansata is merely evidence that early Christians appropriated pre-existing symbols and iconography to suit Christian purposes. No, the Black Death Did Not Cause the Renaissance. The Ankh was one of the earliest forms of the Christian cross called the "Crux Ansata" or 'cross with a handle'. When Does United States History Really Begin? He responded by googling and sending me a picture of a tree that looks like a Cross and said that historically, the Romans crucified people on Crosses. If work time and God time clash, a true believer must choose God. The Cross plays a mystical role in their occult world. They were widely made fun of for this. The Cross is said to be the symbol of Resurrection for Christians. The Ankh is an ancient Egyptian mystical symbol used to represent life. The Egyptians never imagined Horus as any kind of itinerant preacher going around from town-to-town physically laying his hands on people to heal them and cast out demons. I freely confess that. ABOVE: Photograph from Wikimedia Commons of the early fifth-century AD Christian mosaic from the mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna, Italy, depicting Jesus as the “Good Shepherd,” holding a Latin cross, Crux ansata: a Christian cross that really is derived from the Egyptian ankh. If the original Scripture does not mention the word ‘Cross’, and instead uses the word tree, then who are you conforming with by arguing for and propagating the lie that Christ was crucified on a Cross? Your email address will not be published. So, where did the Cross originate from? Believe it or not, for the first 300 years of the Church, the Cross was NOT a Christian symbol. Each religion has its own symbols and characteristic signs. Objects from Tomb of Thutmose … Sometimes people were crucified on simple wooden stakes without crossbars. So, my question is who taught us to observe the Cross, and to make the sign of the Cross, and to put it in our places of worship? Not Bible (translation of Scripture). Just as the symbol of Christianity became the cross, known in several variants, and before it was a fish sign, the ânkh is also a symbol of Egypt's ancient religion. First of all, although the idea that religions “steal” or “plagiarize” off one another is widespread in popular discourse, this is an extremely inaccurate and oversimplified way of describing religious borrowing. In other words, this is less like when white people were native American war bonnets as fashion accessories and more like when native people themselves continue to practice their own ancient rituals even after nominally converting to Christianity. The Coptic cross in its modern and ancient forms is considered a sign of faith and pride to the Copts The Ethiopians Christians wear it as a symbol of faith. For instance, the Epistle of Barnabas, a Christian epistle written between c. 70 and c. 132 AD, clearly states that the cross Jesus was crucified on was shaped like the Greek letter tau ⟨Τ⟩. Get this two-piece necklace set at an affordable price. They would not have considered using the image of the cross, a well-known form of execution, any more than someone today would choose to wear an amulet of an electric chair. “Asar” is a bad transliteration of the name of Horus’s father Osiris. For instance, the Christian apologist Origenes of Alexandria quotes the anti-Christian polemicist Kelsos in his Against Kelsos 6.34 as having written the following passage in his treatise The True Word, as translated by Frederick Crombie: “And in all their writings (is mention made) of the tree of life, and a resurrection of the flesh by means of the ‘tree,’ because, I imagine, their teacher was nailed to a cross, and was a carpenter by craft; so that if he had chanced to have been cast from a precipice, or thrust into a pit, or suffocated by hanging, or had been a leather-cutter, or stone-cutter, or worker in iron, there would have been (invented) a precipice of life beyond the heavens, or a pit of resurrection, or a cord of immortality, or a blessed stone, or an iron of love, or a sacred leather!”. But my heart is wholly devoted to God. Interestingly, though, the cross in the graffito is shaped almost exactly like the standard Latin cross that we are all familiar with today; it is composed of an upright pole with a crossbar near the top to support the donkey-man’s arms. I did not say The Bible never said Christ died on The Cross. In short, power differentials matter. It was adopted by Coptic Christians who used it as a symbol to signify Christ’s promise of life after death in heaven. I am a sinner. The staurogram has been suggested to be influence… I believe that if mainstream religion clashes with God, a true believer must choose God. Over the years, the Ankh later lost the loop and became the Christian cross we see today. I encourage you to use a Greek dictionary to find out the meaning of both words. (This statement will yield debate. Scholar Jack Tresidder writes of the ankh: While other vestiges of the old religion slipped away, the ankh took on a new role while retaining its old meaning of life and the promise of eternal life. It is that important. View all posts by Spencer Alexander McDaniel. The crux ansata appears in several surviving funerary portraits from late antiquity, suggesting that, like the ankh, it was seen as a symbol that could protect a person’s soul in the afterlife. Required fields are marked *. Desperate to find a figure in Egyptian religion analogous to Jesus, Massey distorted ancient Egyptian stories about Horus and invented new stories based on weak or non-existent evidence to make Horus seem more like Jesus. Read Galatians 3:13 if you want to know the truth. The symbol, while pagan in origin, was adopted by Christians in Egypt from the very beginning. I had heard and read about the true origins of the Cross and earlier this year, I even travelled to Ethiopia to celebrate Meskel, which is a celebration of the discovery of the true Cross in Ethiopian orthodox Christianity. The Ankh is not pagan Christian cross. When xtians not only “borrow” from other religions, but pretend they came up with these ideas ab novo, and, moreover, condemn the sources of the ideas as “Satanic”? Image. Each religion has its own symbols and characteristic signs. Despite its popularity, this claim is almost entirely false, for reasons that I shall explain shortly. What the ankh represents could be anything from “a totem representing male and female reproductive parts” or “It may also have been associated with the “Sa” (the hieroglyphic symbol which represented magical protection)” Ancient Egyptian Religion Whatever the case whether from it’s original New Age meaning (as an amulet for protection against evil), it’s not compatible with Christianity. The ankh was one of the few ancient Egyptian artistic motifs that continued to be used after the Christianization of Egypt during the 4th and 5th centuries AD. I responded to him by asking him how satan could have influenced me when what I was writing was faithful to Scripture and to prophecy. It is in shape similar to a tear along with a cross attached below it. Ankh means both “life” and “hand mirror.” It is in the shape of a tau, or looped, cross. Sokrates Scholastikos, who was notably not an Egyptian, expresses skepticism at the idea that the Egyptian priests could have really foreseen the coming of Christ, since they were pagans and servants of Satan. Horus was not believed in ancient times to have been “born of a virgin.” On the contrary, the most detailed surviving ancient account of his conception, found in Ploutarchos’s treatise. Bling! Post navigation. Some Coptic organizations continue to utilize the ankh without modifications. Both of which, the Romans and Greeks copied from the ancient Egyptians, not from Scripture. Mirrors of beaten metal were also often made in the s… It was adopted by early Coptic Christians. Egyptian religion was thus able to adapt to … The djed symbol, so closely associated with Osiris, was one of these but the ankh continued in use. All religions and all cultures are influenced in some way or another by ideas from other religions and other cultures. It is an undeniable fact that the Ankh predated the Cross. Solitarypaganism.com has been designed as a Social Networking and information site for all … I can see you now getting agitated. The King James Version uses the word ‘Tree’ to indicate where Christ died. In recent years, a claim has arisen that the Christian cross is, in fact, plagiarized off the Egyptian ankh. Why can we as Christians not learn from Muslims by learning and reading Scripture in the original language? That Masons, and Rosicrucians dominated the translation of Scripture into the King James Version of The Bible is a historic fact. Mindfulness Evolved: Realize the Dream to Awaken Presently, Why Racism has no place in Norse Spirituality, Expand Your Definition of “Sacred Text” If You Want to Make Connections. Every information that does not lead to transformation is entertainment. It could refer to a structure as simple as a single wooden beam or a massive structure as complicated as the Trojan Horse, which is sometimes referred to in classical Greek literature as the “Ἀργοῦς ξύλον,” or “wooden structure of the Archives.”. Everywhere you see the word ‘Cross’ in The Bible, you are reading a word that is translated from either staurō or xylou. It is an indisputable fact that Christ asked us to teach believers ‘to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you’-Matthew 28:20. Furthermore, crucifixion did not even become a common form of execution until the time of the Achaemenid Empire (lasted 550 – 330 BC)—long after the time when the Egyptians first started worshipping Horus. He asked me if I was relying on Scripture for the part about Masonry. Djed pillars. What is so amazing about the Cross and Ankh being on the walls of the Philae Temple is that the ANKH is the Symbol of Life, the Key of Life…Creation. My body is imperfect towards God. Many of the translators of Scripture into The Bible were Masons. Note the word Scripture. If football and God clash, a true believer must choose God. The Ankh or Crux Ansata is the Egyptian hieroglyh for life and for eternal life in particular. According to Mark Twain “The two most important days in your life are the day you are born and the day you find out why.”. As a result of this, the ankh became widely used as a symbol for life. #1 Bestselling author of Facts Versus Fiction: The True Story of the Jonathan Years.

ankh and christianity

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